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Shaded Pole Motor is the simplest one of the one-way AC motors, usually using a cage-shaped skewed-slot cast-aluminum rotor. It is divided into salient pole shaded pole motor, hidden pole shaded pole motor according to the different shape and structure of the stator.
The shape of the stator core of the salient-pole shaded pole motor is a square, rectangular or circular magnetic field frame with protruding magnetic poles. Each magnetic pole has one or more auxiliary short-circuit copper rings, namely shaded pole windings. The concentrated winding on the salient poles serves as the main winding.
The stator core of the hidden pole shaded pole motor is the same as that of the ordinary single-phase motor. Its stator winding adopts distributed winding, and the main winding is distributed in the stator slot. The shaded pole winding does not need to short-circuit the copper ring but is wound with thicker enameled wire. Distributed windings (short-circuit after being connected in series) are embedded in the stator slots (about 1/3 of the total number of slots) and act as an auxiliary group. The main winding and the shaded pole winding are spaced at a certain angle.
When the main winding of the shaded pole motor is energized, the shaded pole winding will also generate an induced current, which causes the magnetic flux of the part of the stator pole covered by the shaded pole winding and the uncovered part to rotate in the direction of the covered part.
What does "shaded pole" mean in a shaded pole motor?
- A shaded pole motor is a single-phase motor.
- Strictly speaking, the magnetic field generated by the main winding of a single-phase motor is a pulsating magnetic field instead of a rotating magnetic field, and there is no starting torque; that is, the motor will not rotate by itself after being energized. However, an external force in a certain direction can be applied to make it start, and its rotation direction is consistent with the direction of the external force.
- In order to obtain the starting torque, in addition to the essential main winding, many single-phase motors also add a one-phase auxiliary winding, which has become a "two-phase" motor in a practical sense.
- There is a certain phase difference between the magnetic field generated by the secondary winding and the magnetic field of the main winding. After the two interact, a circular or elliptical rotating magnetic field is formed, which generates a starting torque to drive the motor to rotate.
- The secondary winding of a shaded pole motor is a shaded pole ring (also called a short-circuit ring or a copper ring); it generates another shaded pole magnetic field with a phase difference with the main magnetic field by covering a small part of the main pole magnetic field; two magnetic fields After the interaction, an elliptical rotating magnetic field is formed. The "shaded pole" motor got its name from this.
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