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Shaded Pole Fan Motors are simple, maintenance-free and inexpensive single phase induction motors. They are usually used in fan heaters, evaporators, dehumidifiers and other equipment because they are compact, reliable and quiet.
They do not use capacitors and are a salient pole type of split-phase induction motor with an auxiliary winding called the shading coil that is displaced in magnetic position from the main winding to generate the starting torque. This coil surrounds a portion of the pole, about 1/4 to 1/2 of it.
The basic construction of a shaded pole fan motor is below:
Stator: This part carries the main winding and the shaded winding of the motor in it. The main winding is made up of two or four poles.
Each pole consists of an exciting coil that is a copper band. The small portion of the pole is the shaded portion and a copper ring which is a single turn is fitted on this smaller portion.
In the shaded region, the induced current always sets up a magnetic flux that opposes the change in the main flux.
It is because of this that the flux distributes equally in the unshaded and shaded areas during the part AB of an AC cycle.
The net magnetic field moves from the unshaded area to the center of the shaded portion in the positive half cycle and from the centre to the left side of the unshaded region in the negative half cycle. This motion completes the rotation of the magnetic field in a full AC cycle.